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APPLIED GEOPHYSICS  2017, Vol. 14 Issue (3): 337-350    DOI: 10.1007/s11770-017-0637-6
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Study on the simulation of acoustic logging measurements in horizontal and deviated wells
Liu He1, Wang Bing1, Tao Guo2, Zhang Kuo3,4,1, and Yue Wen-Zheng1
1. State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Beijing 102249, China.
2. Department of Petroleum Geoscience, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 2533.
3. China Center for Information Industry Development, Beijing 100048, China.
4. Beijing CCID Publishing & Media Co., Ltd., Beijing 100048, China.
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Abstract The conventional acoustic logging interpretation method, which is based on vertical wells that penetrate isotropic formations, is not suitable for horizontal and deviated wells penetrating anisotropic formations. This unsuitability is because during horizontal and deviated well drilling, cuttings will splash on the well wall or fall into the borehole bottom and form a thin bed of cuttings. In addition, the high velocity layers at different depths and intrinsic anisotropy may affect acoustic logging measurements. In this study, we examine how these factors affect the acoustic wave slowness measured in horizontal and deviated wells that are surrounded by an anisotropic medium using numerical simulation. We use the staggered-grid finite difference method in time domain (FDTD) combined with hybrid-PML. First, we acquire the acoustic slowness using a simulated array logging system, and then, we analyze how various factors affect acoustic slowness measurements and the differences between the effects of these factors. The factors considered are high-velocity layers, thin beds of cuttings, dipping angle, formation thickness, and anisotropy. The simulation results show that these factors affect acoustic wave slowness measurements differently. We observe that when the wavelength is much smaller than the distance between the borehole wall and high velocity layer, the true slowness of the formation could be acquired. When the wavelengths are of the same order (i.e., in the near-field scenarios), the geometrical acoustics theory is no longer applicable. Furthermore, when a thin bed of cuttings exists at the bottom of the borehole, Fermat's principle is still applicable, and true slowness can be acquired. In anisotropic formations, the measured slowness changes with increments in the dipping angle. Finally, for a measurement system with specific spacing, the slowness of a thin target layer can be acquired when the distance covered by the logging tool is sufficiently long. Based on systematical simulations with different dipping angles and anisotropy in homogenous TI media, slowness estimation charts are established to quantitatively determine the slowness at any dipping angle and for any value of the anisotropic ratio. Synthetic examples with different acoustic logging tools and different elastic parameters demonstrate that the acoustic slowness estimation method can be conveniently applied to horizontal and deviated wells in TI formations with high accuracy.
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Key wordsHorizontal well   deviated well   high velocity layer   cuttings bed   acoustic slowness estimation     
Received: 2017-07-17;

This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41204094) and Science Foundation of China University of Petroleum, Beijing (No. 2462015YQ0506).

Cite this article:   
. Study on the simulation of acoustic logging measurements in horizontal and deviated wells[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(3): 337-350.
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