1. Sichuan Geophysical Company of Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Company Limited, CNPC, Chengdu 610213, China.
2. State Key Lab. of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China.
Abstract In unconventional reservoirs, small faults allow the flow of oil and gas as well as act as obstacles to exploration; for, (1) fracturing facilitates fluid migration, (2) reservoir flooding, and (3) triggering of small earthquakes. These small faults are not generally detected because of the low seismic resolution. However, such small faults are very active and release sufficient energy to initiate a large number of microseismic events (MEs) during hydraulic fracturing. In this study, we identified microfractures (MF) from hydraulic fracturing and natural small faults based on microseismicity characteristics, such as the time–space distribution, source mechanism, magnitude, amplitude, and frequency. First, I identified the mechanism of small faults and MF by reservoir stress analysis and calibrated the ME based on the microseismic magnitude. The dynamic characteristics (frequency and amplitude) of MEs triggered by natural faults and MF were analyzed; moreover, the geometry and activity types of natural fault and MF were grouped according to the source mechanism. Finally, the differences among time–space distribution, magnitude, source mechanism, amplitude, and frequency were used to differentiate natural faults and manmade fractures.
This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Project of China (No. 2016ZX05023-004).
Cite this article:
. Fault detection based on microseismic events[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(3): 363-371.
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