Home  |  Copyright  |  About Journal  |  Editorial Board  |  Indexed-in  |  Subscriptions  |  Download  |  Contacts Us  |  中文
APPLIED GEOPHYSICS  2018, Vol. 15 Issue (1): 11-25    DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0659-8
article Current Issue | Next Issue | Archive | Adv Search Previous Articles  |  Next Articles  
3D forward modeling and response analysis for marine CSEMs towed by two ships
Zhang Bo1, Yin Chang-Chun1, Liu Yun-He1, Ren Xiu-Yan1, Qi Yan-Fu2, and Cai Jing1
1. College of Geo-Exploration Sciences and Technology, Jilin University, Changchun 130026, China.
2. School of Geology and Survey Engineering, Changan University, Xi’an 710054, China.
 Download: PDF (2002 KB)   HTML ( KB)   Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      Supporting Info
Abstract A dual-ship-towed marine electromagnetic (EM) system is a new marine exploration technology recently being developed in China. Compared with traditional marine EM systems, the new system tows the transmitters and receivers using two ships, rendering it unnecessary to position EM receivers at the seafloor in advance. This makes the system more flexible, allowing for different configurations (e.g., in-line, broadside, and azimuthal and concentric scanning) that can produce more detailed underwater structural information. We develop a three-dimensional goal-oriented adaptive forward modeling method for the new marine EM system and analyze the responses for four survey configurations. Ocean-bottom topography has a strong effect on the marine EM responses; thus, we develop a forward modeling algorithm based on the finite-element method and unstructured grids. To satisfy the requirements for modeling the moving transmitters of a dual-ship-towed EM system, we use a single mesh for each of the transmitter locations. This mitigates the mesh complexity by refining the grids near the transmitters and minimizes the computational cost. To generate a rational mesh while maintaining the accuracy for single transmitter, we develop a goal-oriented adaptive method with separate mesh refinements for areas around the transmitting source and those far away. To test the modeling algorithm and accuracy, we compare the EM responses calculated by the proposed algorithm and semi-analytical results and from published sources. Furthermore, by analyzing the EM responses for four survey configurations, we are confirm that compared with traditional marine EM systems with only in-line array, a dual-ship-towed marine system can collect more data.
E-mail this article
Add to my bookshelf
Add to citation manager
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Key wordsmarine   electromagnetics   dual-ship-towing   seafloor   modeling     
Received: 2017-12-13;

This research is financially supported by the Key National Research Project of China (Nos. 2016YFC0303100 and 2017YFC0601900), the Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41530320 and 41774125).

Cite this article:   
. 3D forward modeling and response analysis for marine CSEMs towed by two ships[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2018, 15(1): 11-25.
[1] Bakr, S. A., and Mannseth, T., 2009, Feasibility of simplified integral equation modeling of low- frequency marine CSEM with a resistive target: Geophysics, 74(5), F107-F117.
[2] Ben, F., Liu, Y. H., Huang, W., and Xu, C., 2016, MCSEM responses for anisotropic media in shallow water: Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science), 46(2), 581-593..
[3] Constable, S., and Weiss, C. J., 2006, Mapping thin resistors and hydrocarbons with marine EM methods: Insights from 1D modeling: Geophysics, 71(2), G43-G51.
[4] Jin, J. M., 1998, Electromagnetic Finite-Element Method (in Chinese). Xi’an: Xidian University Press.
[5] Mitsuhata, Y., 2000, 2-D electromagnetic modeling by finite-element method with a dipole source and topography: Geophysics, 65(2), 465-475.
[6] Newman, G. A., and Alumbaugh, D. L., 1995, Frequency-domain modelling of airborne electromagnetic responses using staggered finite differences: Geophysical Prospecting, 43, 1021-1042.
[7] Newman, G. A., Commer, M., and Carazzone J. J., 2010, Imaging CSEM data in the presence of electrical anisotropy: Geophysics, 75(2), F51-F61.
[8] Persova, M. G., Soloveichik, Y. G., Domnikov, P. A., et al., 2015, Electromagnetic field analysis in the marine CSEM detection of homogeneous and inhomogeneous hydrocarbon 3D reservoirs: Journal of Applied Geophysics, 119, 147-155.
[9] Ren, Z., Kalscheuer, T., Greenhalgh, S., and Maurer, H., 2013, A goal-oriented adaptive finite-element approach for plane wave 3-D electromagnetic modeling: Geophys. J. Int., 194, 700-718.
[10] Ryhove, S. K., and Mittet, R., 2014, 3D marine magnetotelluric modeling and inversion with the finite-difference time-domain method: Geophysics, 79(6), E269-E286.
[11] Sasaki, Y. and Meju, M. A., 2009, Useful characteristics of shallow and deep marine CSEM responses inferred from 3D finite-difference modeling: Geophysics, 74(5), F67-F76.
[12] Weidelt, P., 2007, Guided waves in marine CSEM: Geophys. J. Int., 171, 153-176.
[13] Yang, B., Xu, Y. X., He, Z. X., et al., 2012, 3D frequency-domain modeling of marine controlled source electromagnetic responses with topography using finite volume method: Chinese J. Geophys. (in Chinese), 55(4), 1390-1399.
[14] Yin, C. C., Ben, F., Liu, Y. H., et al., 2014, MCSEM 3D modeling of arbitrarily anisotropic media: Chinese J. Geophys. (in Chinese), 57(12), 4110- 4122.
[15] Zhao, L. X., Geng, J. H., Zhang, S. Y., et al., 2008, 1-D Controlled source electromagnetic forward modeling for marine gas hydrates studies: Applied Geophysics, 5(2), 121-126.
[16] Zhdanov, M. S., Lee, S. K., and Yoshioka, K., 2006, Integral equation method for 3D modeling of electromagnetic fields in complex structures with inhomogeneous background conductivity: Geophysics, 71(6), G333-G345.
[1] Yan Liang-Jun, Chen Xiao-Xiong, Tang Hao, Xie Xing-Bing, Zhou Lei, Hu Wen-Bao, Wang Zhong-Xin. Continuous TDEM for monitoring shale hydraulic fracturing[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2018, 15(1): 26-34.
[2] Wang Shu-Ming, Di Qing-Yun, Wang Ruo, Wang Xue-Mei, Su Xiao-Lu, Wang Peng-Fei. Removal of the airwave effect by main-part decomposition of the anomalous field of MCSEM data[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2018, 15(1): 3-10.
[3] Li Jing-He, He Zhan-Xiang, Xu Yi-Xian. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of surface-to-borehole electromagnetic method for monitoring reservoir[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(4): 559-569.
[4] Huang Wei, Ben Fang, Yin Chang-Chun, Meng Qing-Min, Li Wen-Jie, Liao Gui-Xiang, Wu Shan, Xi Yong-Zai. Three-dimensional arbitrarily anisotropic modeling for time-domain airborne electromagnetic surveys[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(3): 431-440.
[5] Wang Jun-Lu, Lin Pin-Rong, Wang Meng, Li Dang, Li Jian-Hua. Three-dimensional tomography using high-power induced polarization with the similar central gradient array[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(2): 291-300.
[6] Liu Xin, Liu Yang, Ren Zhi-Ming, Cai Xiao-Hui, Li Bei, Xu Shi-Gang, Zhou Le-Kai. Hybrid absorbing boundary condition for three-dimensional elastic wave modeling[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(2): 270-278.
[7] Zhang Hua, Chen Xiao-Hong, Zhang Luo-Yi. 3D simultaneous seismic data reconstruction and noise suppression based on the curvelet transform[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(1): 87-95.
[8] Xing Feng-Yuan, Yang Kai, Xue Dong, Wang Xiao-Jiang, Chen Bao-Shu. Application of 3D stereotomography to the deep-sea data acquired in the South China Sea: a tomography inversion case[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(1): 142-153.
[9] Chen Hui, Deng Ju-Zhi Yin Min, Yin Chang-Chun, Tang Wen-Wu. Three-dimensional forward modeling of DC resistivity using the aggregation-based algebraic multigrid method[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(1): 154-164.
[10] Meng Qing-Xin, Hu Xiang-Yun, Pan He-Ping, Zhou Feng. 10.1007/s11770-017-0600-6[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(1): 175-186.
[11] Yang Si-Tong, Wei Jiu-Chuan, Cheng Jiu-Long, Shi Long-Qing, Wen Zhi-Jie. Numerical simulations of full-wave fields and analysis of channel wave characteristics in 3-D coal mine roadway models[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2016, 13(4): 621-630.
[12] Cao Meng, Tan Han-Dong, Wang Kun-Peng. 3D LBFGS inversion of controlled source extremely low frequency electromagnetic data[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2016, 13(4): 689-700.
[13] Liu Yun-He, Yin Chang-Chun, Ren Xiu-Yan, Qiu Chang-Kai. 3D parallel inversion of time-domain airborne EM data[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2016, 13(4): 701-711.
[14] Wang Tao, Tan Han-Dong, Li Zhi-Qiang, Wang Kun-Peng, Hu Zhi-Ming, Zhang Xing-Dong. 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm and anomaly features of ZTEM[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2016, 13(3): 553-560.
[15] Liu Zhi-Ning, Song Cheng-Yun, Li Zhi-Yong, Cai Han-Peng, Yao Xing-Miao, Hu Guang-Min. 3D modeling of geological anomalies based on segmentation of multiattribute fusion[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2016, 13(3): 519-528.
Support by Beijing Magtech