Brittleness characteristics of tight oil siltstones
Tan Wen-Hui1, Ba Jing1, Guo Meng-Qiu1, Li Hui2, Zhang Lin1, Yu Ting1, and Chen Hao3
1. School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China.
2. School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xian 710000, China.
3. Institute of Acoustics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.
Abstract Rock brittleness directly affects reservoir fracturing and its evaluation is essential for establishing fracturing conditions prior to reservoir reforming. Dynamic and static brittleness data were collected from siltstones of the Qingshankou Formation in Songliao Basin. The brittle–plastic transition was investigated based on the stress–strain relation. The results suggest that the brittleness indices calculated by static elastic parameters are negatively correlated with the stress drop coefficient and the brittleness index B2, defined as the average of the normalized Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, is strongly correlated with the stress drop. The brittleness index B2, Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio correlate with the brittle minerals content; that is, quartz, carbonates, and pyrite. We also investigated the correlation between pore fluid and porosity and dynamic brittle characteristic based on index B2. Pore fluid increases the plasticity of rock and reduces brittleness; moreover, with increasing porosity, rock brittleness decreases. The gas-saturated siltstone brittleness index is higher than that in oil- or water-saturated siltstone; the difference in the brittleness indices of oil- and water-saturated siltstone is very small. By comparing the rock mechanics and ultrasonic experiments, we find that the brittleness index obtained from the rock mechanics experiments is smaller than that obtained from the ultrasonic experiments; nevertheless, both decrease with increasing porosity as well as their differences. Ultrasonic waves propagate through the rock specimens without affecting them, whereas rock mechanics experiments are destructive and induce microcracking and porosity increases; consequently, the brittleness of low-porosity rocks is affected by the formation of internal microcrack systems.
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