Home  |  Copyright  |  About Journal  |  Editorial Board  |  Indexed-in  |  Subscriptions  |  Download  |  Contacts Us  |  中文
APPLIED GEOPHYSICS  2018, Vol. 15 Issue (2): 188-196    DOI: 10.1007/s11770-018-0683-8
article Current Issue | Next Issue | Archive | Adv Search Previous Articles  |  Next Articles  
Velocity dispersion and fluid substitution in sandstone under partially saturated conditions
Ma Xiao-Yi1, Wang Shang-Xu1, Zhao Jian-Guo1, Yin Han-Jun1, and Zhao Li-Ming1
1. State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Beijing 102249, China.
 Download: PDF (1148 KB)   HTML ( KB)   Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      Supporting Info
Abstract The elastic moduli of four sandstone samples are measured at seismic (2−2000 Hz) and ultrasonic (1 MHz) frequencies and water- and glycerin-saturated conditions. We observe that the high-permeability samples under partially water-saturated conditions and the low-permeability samples under partially glycerin-saturated conditions show little dispersion at low frequencies (2−2000 Hz). However, the high-permeability samples under partially glycerin-saturated conditions and the low-permeability samples under partially water-saturated conditions produce strong dispersion in the same frequency range (2−2000 Hz). This suggests that fluid mobility largely controls the pore-fluid movement and pore pressure in a porous medium. High fluid mobility facilitates pore-pressure equilibration either between pores or between heterogeneous regions, resulting in a low-frequency domain where the Gassmann equations are valid. In contrast, low fluid mobility produces pressure gradients even at seismic frequencies, and thus dispersion. The latter shows a systematic shift to lower frequencies with decreasing mobility. Sandstone samples showed variations in Vp as a function of fluid saturation. We explore the applicability of the Gassmann model on sandstone rocks. Two theoretical bounds for the P-velocity are known, the Gassmann–Wood and Gassmann–Hill limits. The observations confirm the effect of wave-induced flow on the transition from the Gassmann–Wood to the Gassmann–Hill limit. With decreasing fluid mobility, the P-velocity at 2–2000 Hz moves from the Gassmann–Wood boundary to the Gassmann–Hill boundary. In addition,, we investigate the mechanisms responsible for this transition.
E-mail this article
Add to my bookshelf
Add to citation manager
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Key wordsSandstone   saturation   P-wave   dispersion   Gassmann   fluid substitution     
Received: 2018-03-23;

This work was supported by 973 Program “Fundamental Study on the Geophysical Prospecting of the Deep-layered Oil and Gas Reservoirs” (No. 2013CB228600).

Cite this article:   
. Velocity dispersion and fluid substitution in sandstone under partially saturated conditions[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2018, 15(2): 188-196.
[1] Adam, L., and Otheim, T., 2013, Elastic laboratory measurements and modeling of saturated basalts: Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 118, 840-851.
[2] Adelinet, M., Fortin, J., Guéguen Y., Schubnel A., and Geoffroy, L., 2010, Frequency and fluid effects on elastic properties of basalt: Experimental investigations: Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L02303.
[3] Batzle, M. L., Han, D., and Hofmann, R., 2006, Fluid mobility and frequency-dependent seismic velocity-Direct measurements: Geophysics, 71(1), N1-N9.
[4] Berryman, J. G., and Wang H. F., 2000, Elastic wave propagation and attenuation in a double-porosity, dual-permeability medium: International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mineral Science, 37, 63-78.
[5] Biot, M. A., 1956, Theory of propagation of elastic waves in a fluid-saturated porous solid: II-Higher frequency range: Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 28, 179-191.
[6] David, E. C., and Zimmerman, R. W., 2012, Pore structure model for elastic wave velocities in fluid-saturated sandstones: Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, B07210.
[7] Deng, J., Zhou, H., Wang, H., Zhao, J., and Wang, S., 2015, The influence of pore structure in reservoir sandstone on dispersion properties of elastic waves: Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 58, 3389-3400.
[8] Dutta, N. C., and Ode, H., 1979, Attenuation and dispersion of compressional waves in fluid-filled porous rocks with partial gas saturation White model: Part II: Results: Geophysics, 44, 1789-1805.
[9] Gary, M., and Tapan, M., 1998, Bounds on low-frequency seismic velocities in partially saturated rocks: Geophysics, 63, 918-924.
[10] Lucet, N., Rasolofosaon, P. N. J., and Zinszner, 1991, Sonic properties of rocks under confining pressure using the resonant bar technique: J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 89(3), 980-990.
[11] Mavko, G., and Jizba, D., 1991, Estimating grain-scale fluid defects on velocity dispersion in rocks: Geophysics, 56, 1940-1949.
[12] Mavko, G., Mukerji, T., and Dvorkin, J., 2009, The rock physics handbook: Tools for seismic analysis of porous media: Cambridge University Press.
[13] Maxim, L., and Julianna, T. -S., 2009, Direct laboratory observation of patchy saturation and its effects on ultrasonic velocities: The Leading Edge, 24-27.
[14] Mikhaltsevitch, V., Lebedev, M., and Gurevich, B., 2014, A laboratory study of low-frequency wave dispersion and attenuation in water-saturated sandstones: The Leading Edge, 33, 616-622.
[15] Müller, T. M., Gurevich, B., and Lebedev, M., 2010, Seismic wave attenuation and dispersion resulting from wave-induced flow in porous rocks—A review: Geophysics, 75(5), 75A-147A.
[16] Pimienta, L., Fortin J., and Guéguen, Y., 2015a, Bulk modulus dispersion and attenuation in sandstones: Geophysics, 80(2), D111-D127.
[17] Spencer, J. W., and Shine, J., 2016, Seismic wave attenuation and modulus dispersion in sandstones: Geophysics, 81(3), D219-D239.
[18] Wang, S. X., Zhao, J. G., Li, Z. H., et al., 2012, Differential Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy for the acoustic measurement of small and irregular samples in the low frequency range: Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(B6), B06203.
[19] White, J. E., 1975, Computed seismic speeds and attenuation in rocks with partial gas saturation: Geophysics, 40, 224-232.
[20] Yin, H., Wang, S., Zhao, J., Ma, X., Zhao, L., and Cui, Y., 2016, A laboratory study of dispersion and pressure effects in partially saturated tight sandstone at seismic frequencies: 86th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 3236-3240.
[21] Zhao, J., Tang, G. Y., Deng, J. X., Tong, X. L., and Wang, S. X., 2013, Determination of rock acoustic properties at low frequency: A differential acoustical resonance spectroscopy device and its estimation technique: Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 2975-2982.
[22] Zhao, J. G., Wang, S. X., Tong, X. L., Yin, H. J., Yuan, D. J., Ma, X. Y., Deng, J. X., and Xiong, B., 2015, Geophysical Journal International, 202, 1775-1791.
[1] Guo Zhi-Hua, Song Yan-Jie, Tang Xiao-Min, and Wang Chao. Conductivity model for pyrite-bearing laminated and dispersed shaly sands based on a differential equation and the generalized Archie equation[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2018, 15(2): 208-221.
[2] Cao Xue-Shen Chen Hao, Li Ping, He Hong-Bin, Zhou Yin-Qiu, and Wang Xiu-Ming. Wideband dipole logging based on segment linear frequency modulation excitation[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2018, 15(2): 197-207.
[3] Duan Xi and Liu Xiang-Jun. Two-phase pore-fluid distribution in fractured media: acoustic wave velocity vs saturation[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2018, 15(2): 311-317.
[4] Li Xin-Xin and Li Qing-Chun. Active-source Rayleigh wave dispersion by the Aki spectral formulation[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2018, 15(2): 290-298.
[5] Ren Ying-Jun, Huang Jian-Ping, Yong Peng, Liu Meng-Li, Cui Chao, and Yang Ming-Wei. Optimized staggered-grid finite-difference operators using window functions[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2018, 15(2): 253-260.
[6] Wang Bao-Li. Automatic pickup of arrival time of channel wave based on multi-channel constraints[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2018, 15(1): 118-124.
[7] Sun Cheng-Yu, Wang Yan-Yan, Wu Dun-Shi, Qin Xiao-Jun. Nonlinear Rayleigh wave inversion based on the shuffled frog-leaping algorithm[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(4): 551-558.
[8] Yan Jian-Ping, He Xu, Geng Bin, Hu Qin-Hong, Feng Chun-Zhen, Kou Xiao-Pan, Li Xing-Wen. Nuclear magnetic resonance T2 spectrum: multifractal characteristics and pore structure evaluation[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(2): 205-215.
[9] Song Lian-Teng, Liu Zhong-Hua, Zhou Can-Can, Yu Jun, Xiu Li-Jun, Sun Zhong-Chun, Zhang Hai-Tao. Analysis of elastic anisotropy of tight sandstone and the influential factors[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(1): 10-20.
[10] Zhang Yu, Ping Ping, Zhang Shuang-Xi. Finite-difference modeling of surface waves in poroelastic media and stress mirror conditions[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2017, 14(1): 105-114.
[11] Peng Rong, Wei Jian-Xing, Di Bang-Rang, Ding Pin-Bo, Liu Zi-Chun. Experimental research on seismoelectric effects in sandstone[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2016, 13(3): 425-436.
[12] Ma Jin-Feng, Li Lin, Wang Hao-Fan, Tan Ming-You, Cui Shi-Ling, Zhang Yun-Yin, Qu Zhi-Peng, Jia Ling-Yun, Zhang Shu-Hai. Geophysical monitoring technology for CO2 sequestration[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2016, 13(2): 288-306.
[13] . Seismic dynamic monitoring in CO2 flooding based on characterization of frequency-dependent velocity factor[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2016, 13(2): 307-314.
[14] Cao Cheng-Hao, Zhang Hong-Bing, Pan Yi-Xin, and Teng Xin-Bao. Relationship between the transition frequency of local fluid flow and the peak frequency of attenuation[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2016, 13(1): 156-165.
[15] Guo Zhi-Qi, Liu Xi-Wu, Fu Wei, Li Xiang-Yang. Modeling and analysis of azimuthal AVO responses from a viscoelastic anisotropic reflector[J]. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS, 2015, 12(3): 441-452.
Support by Beijing Magtech